This talk is about the arithmetic of points of small canonical height relative to dynamical systems over number fields, particularly those aspects amenable to the use of equidistribution techniques. Past milestones in the subject include the proof of the Manin-Mumford Conjecture given by Szpiro-Ullmo-Zhang, and Baker-DeMarco's work on the finiteness of common preperiodic points of unicritical maps. Recently, quantitative equidistribution techniques have emerged both as a way of improving upon some of these old results, and as an avenue to studying previously inaccessible problems, such as the Uniform Boundedness Conjecture of Morton and Silverman. I will describe the key ideas behind these developments, and raise related questions for future research.